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It is usually easy for a person to draw something that they have created because they have also formulated all of the rules that it follows. Riven calls this process "invention". We can do the same thing with the human body (i.e.: reduce it to a set of rules about proportion and form that are easy to keep in mind while we do figure drawing). It is important to note that all of the proportions that Riven gives throughout this course are

Invention of the Human Body [Front View]:

• A vertical line represents the height of the figure

• Dividing the entire line in half gives us the position of the crotch [more specifically the "pubic bone" or

• Dividing the bottom half in half gives us the position of the knees, which will be slightly above this point

• Dividing the top half in half gives us the bottom of the

Notice that we have divided the entire line into four parts. Starting from the top:

• Dividing the first fourth in half gives us the bottom of the chin, and thus the height of the head

• Dividing the second fourth in half gives us the location of the navel

Notice that we have divided the entire line into eight parts, all of which are the same height as the head. [This "8-Head Model" is fairly standard, but we could use a different number of "heads" for the height of the figure too (e.g.: to represent a character of a different age or sex).] Again, starting from the top:

• Dividing the second eighth in half gives us the location of the

[The "breastbone" or

Now, we get into finer divisions and constructions:

• Dividing the space between the

[Chest cavity is an egg shape one head in width at pec line. Nipples are slightly inward and above this point. The bottom of the chest cavity ends slighly above the navel point. If you want a specific measure, divide the area between the pec line and the navel in half. Then, divide the bottom half in half again. The bottom of the chest cavity will align with this division.]

• Dividing the space between the crotch and the navel into thirds gives us:

+ aligning with the top-third are the

+ aligning with the bottom-third are the "heads" of each

The above divisions give us the legs.

• Drawing a line from the navel through the nipples gives us the top of the

The above divisions give us the arms (when resting at the sides of the figure). They should not collide with the chest cavity, so make sure the top of the

[The torso is similar to a rectangle because the width of the hips (i.e.: the ball of each